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MAKANAN DAN MINUMAN PENURUN KOLESTEROL

Satu lagi informasi yang mungkin dapat bermanfaat. Kali ini mengenai makanan dan minuman penurun kolesterol. Anggapan mengenai tingginya kolesterol dalam darah hanya bisa terjadi pada manula atau mereka yang usianya sudah kepala empat, sungguh salah besar. Kolesterol tinggi bisa terjadi pada usia muda, bahkan di usia belasan.

food cholesterol


Tips menurunkan kolesterol:

# Hindari atau kurangi mengkonsumsi makanan dan minuman berminyak, berlemak, dan mengandung kolesterol tinggi. Contoh: jeroan, kepiting, udang, kerang, kacang-kacangan, daging, santan, minyak, margarin, cokelat, dan gula.

# Olahraga, Menurut Prof. Dr. Walujo S. Soerjodibroto, Ph.D, guru besar FKUI – Departemen Ilmu Gizi, tubuh manusia sangat susah mengeluarkan kolesterol. Agar kolesterol tidak menumpuk maka harus dikeluarkan secara paksa. Caranya dengan banyak beraktivitas fisik. Lakukan olahraga rutin minimal 20 menit setiap hari.

# Perbanyak konsumsi makanan dan minuman yang dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol. Semua buah dan sayuran mengandung serat. Jadi, semua buah dan sayuran juga mampu menurunkan kolesterol. Serat dapat mengikat kolesterol sehingga tak beredar dalam darah. Sedangkan vitamin C untuk homeostasis alias pengatur keseimbangan kolesterol. Yang perlu diingat, sayuran yang kaya vitamin C cukup direbus setengah matang. Kalau sampai matang, vitaminnya hilang. Jika sayuran atau buah-buahan dibuat menjadi jus, minumlah bersama ampasnya, karena ampas itu merupakan sumber serat yang mampu menurunkan kadar kolesterol.

Beberapa jenis makanan dan minuman yang dapat membantu menurunkan kadar kolesterol adalah sebagai berikut:

BAWANG PUTIH –
Konsumsi bawang putih setengah sampai satu siung sehari secara kontinyu selama satu bulan mampu menurunkan kolesterol sebanyak 9%. Harap dosisnya diperhatikan benar! Jika terlalu banyak, tak baik bagi kesehatan. Mengonsumsi lebih dari tiga siung setiap hari dapat menimbulkan diare, kentut, sebah, dan demam. Bahkan bisa memunculkan perdarahan lambung.

bawang putih


Salah satu zat antikolesterol paling kuat pada bawang putih adalah ajoene. Senyawa ini juga dapat mencegah penggumpalan darah. Walau bawang putih dimasak, kandungan senyawa ini tidak rusak. Pada 1981, peneliti dari Pusat Riset Obat-obatan di Tagore Medical College, India, melaporkan efek bawang putih mentah dan goreng yang diujicobakan pada 20 pasien dengan riwayat penyakit jantung. Menurut laporannya, terdapat pengurangan kecenderungan pembentukan bekuan darah pada pembuluh darah mereka. Ini ditunjukkan oleh aktivitas fibrinolitik yang meningkat. Penelitian juga mengemukakan, khasiat memang sedikit berkurang bila bawang digoreng, tapi tak terlalu bermakna. Jadi pandangan umum yang menyatakan bawang putih akan kehilangan efeknya bila dimasak adalah salah.
Khasiat bawang putih juga bergantung pada tempat tumbuhnya. Bawang putih yang tumbuh di tanah kaya selenium akan mengandung selenium yang tinggi pula sehingga manfaatnya sebagai obat antipenuaan akan lebih terasa.

TEMPE –
Sekalipun berasal dari rumpun kacang-kacangan, tempe sangat ampuh dalam menurunkan kolesterol. Tempe memiliki kandungan niacin yang mampu menurunkan kolesterol. Tempe mengandung niacin 5 x lebih banyak daripada kedelai. Selain juga mengandung isoflavon yang sudah teruji bisa menurunkan kolesterol.

TEH –
Menurut penelitian, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), yaitu komponen bioaktif paling dominan dalam teh terbukti mampu mencegah percepatan oksidasi kolesterol LDL (kolesterol jahat). Artinya dengan mengonsumsi teh setiap hari dalam jumlah yang wajar, risiko penyumbatan pembuluh darah penyebab penyakit jantung dapat dikurangi.

minum teh


ANGGUR –
Selain serat, di dalam buah anggur terdapat pula zat catechin yang sangat baik dalam menurunkan kolesterol.

APEL –
Buah yang satu ini sangat terkenal kaya akan serat dan zat antioksidan. Sudah tentu apel pun kaya vitamin C. Maka dari itu, apel bisa juga diandalkan sebagai penurun kolesterol. Sebaiknya apel dikonsumsi beserta kulitnya, karena di kulit inilah terdapat kandungan pektin (serat larut yang ampuh sekali dalam menurunkan kadar kolesterol) dan antioksidan paling banyak.

ALPUKAT/AVOKAD –
Selama ini avokad dikenal kaya akan lemak. Tak heran jika buah ini selalu dijauhi manakala kolesterol sedang tinggi, padahal avokad sangat baik untuk menurunkan kolesterol. Buah ini mengandung asam lemak tak jenuh yang baik untuk menurunkan kolesterol jahat.

BLUEBERRY –
Buah blueberry mungkin dapat dijadikan salah satu pengobatan alternatif dalam menurunkan kolesterol di tubuh kita. Karena penelitian yang dilakukan para ahli di Amerika dengan menggunakan binatang pengerat memberikan hasil yang memuaskan dalam menurunkan kolesterol.

Walaupun ini baru merupakan penelitian awal, tapi telah memberikan harapan baru untuk mengembangkannya sebagai salah satu pengobatan. Penelitian ini diungkapkan pada pertemuan American Chemical Society.
Komponen yang ada dalam blueberry, Pterostilbene, menunjukkan efek yang menstimulasi protein reseptor yang ada dalam sel, yang berperan penting dalam menurunkan kolesterol dan lemak tubuh lainnya.
Kerja Pterostilbene ini, mirip dengan kerja dari obat penurun kolesterol, Ciprofibrate. Ciprofibrate ini efektif dalam menurunkan kolesterol dalam darah, tapi dapat menimbulkan efek samping seperti nyeri otot dan mual pada beberapa orang. Sedang blueberry, yang bekerja pada reseptor sel hati sebagai target kerjanya, akan bekerja lebih akurat. Sehingga efek sampingnya juga lebih kecil.
Dalam penelitian ini juga tidak ditemukan adanya efek samping. Penelitian lainnya pada blueberry, menyebutkan bahwa Pterostilbene mungkin juga dapat membantu melawan kanker dan diabetes. Dan juga tidak tertutup kemungkinan dipakai untuk mencegah kegemukan dan penyakit jantung. Penelitian lebih lanjut pada manusia diperlukan setelah penelitian di laboratorium ini membawa hasil yang menjanjikan. Tapi yang tetap penting harus terus dilakukan adalah tetap melakukan aktifitas fisik yang disertai dengan pola makan yang sehat, banyak konsumsi sayur dan buah dan rendah lemak jenuh. Semua itu merupakan cara terbaik dalam menurunkan kolesterol dan risiko penyakit jantung.

IKAN –
Ikan sangat kaya asam lemak tak jenuh (omega3). Selain dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol dalam darah, asam lemak ini juga mencegah terjadinya pengumpulan keping-keping darah yang mengakibatkan penyumbatan pembuluh darah. Berdasarkan habitatnya terdapat dua golongan ikan; ikan air tawar dan ikan laut. Habitat ikan memengaruhi kandungan zat gizi ikan. Ikan air tawar kaya akan karbohidrat dan protein, sedangkan ikan laut kaya akan lemak tak jenuh, vitamin dan mineral.

sail banda fish

 

Tabel kandungan Asam Lemak Omega-3 per 100 gram
Jenis ikan Asam Lemak Omega-3 (gram)
Tuna 2,1
Sardin 1,2
Salmon 1,6
Makarel 1,9
Herring 1,2
Teri 1,4
Tongkol 1,5
Tenggiri 2,6
Tawes 1,5
Kembung 2,2

 

Sumber :
* Majalah Nakita
* Info-sehat.com
* untoro.wordpress.com

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Minuman Isotonik Bukan Minuman Penambah Tenaga
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Americans have excessively high blood cholesterol levels. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP ATP III, 2001) states that a sound diet, weight loss and physical activity are the cornerstones of therapy for many individuals with cholesterol disorders. (Cholesterol-lowering drug therapy is reserved for those who have the very highest lipid levels or for those who have diabetes or coronary disease.) Atherosclerosis is a costly and fatal disease. Although there is no known cure, new evidence suggests that intensive lowering of serum total cholesterol, or more specifically, LDL cholesterol may retard the progression of coronary artery disease. The box, right, contains the NCEP cholesterol guidelines authored in 2001 by a panel of physicians and lipid experts. Reducing cholesterol through exercise, particularly LDL cholesterol, can be quite labor intensive. When individuals accumulate a sufficient weekly volume of exercise they can lower both total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and increase HDL-cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol). Exercise itself does not “burn off” cholesterol like it can with fat tissue. However, when exercise is of sufficient volume, for example, an adequate weekly frequency and duration, it can significantly reduce triglycerides and stimulate several metabolic enzyme systems in the muscles and liver to convert some of the cholesterol to a more favorable form, such as HDL-cholesterol. Reducing triglycerides decreases triglyceride-rich particles that are known to promote the growth of fatty deposits on artery walls. For many people with cholesterol disorders the first choice of therapy is dietary modification. In general, reducing high-glycemic carbohydrates reduces triglycerides, and reducing saturated and trans-fat foods decreases LDL-cholesterol. If LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) is high enough, dietary therapy is often supplemented with cholesterol-lowering drug therapy. Exercise is of tremendous benefit when used in combination with either of these two forms of therapy. For those who maintain a frequent and sufficient level of exercise, it is possible that their physician will reduce their cholesterol-lowering medication and in some cases stop it altogether. Here are guidelines that outline a systematic approach for favorably altering cholesterol levels with regular exercise: • If you have a less-than-desirable cholesterol level, or your doctor has indicated you have a cholesterol disorder, have your physician establish your cardiovascular health status before engaging in a vigorous exercise program. Your physician may elect to perform additional blood tests (e.g., C-reactive protein) and/or a graded exercise test with an ECG (treadmill stress test) on you first. • Choose dynamic forms of exercise that tend to last at least 20 to 30 minutes and are performed at moderate intensities. Moderate exercise intensities would be an approximate effort of four to seven, on a scale of one to ten with ten being near maximal exercise. • In general, for exercise to significantly lower cholesterol levels, a relatively high volume of exercise is recommended (e.g. 1,500 kcal or more per week). In 12 to 16 weeks this volume of exercise can reduce total cholesterol by 10 to 20 percent. Fifteen hundred calories expended during exercise is equivalent to three to four hours per week for the average unfit person performing moderate-intensity walking, swimming, walk-jogging or cycling. This volume of weekly exercise is approximately the same volume of physical activity required to lose weight. As a result, fat weight loss tends to be associated with increases in HDL-cholesterol and reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, especially fat lost around the waist and abdomen. A sample program would be to start with walking 20 minutes per day, four days a week. Over six to eight weeks, graduate this program to one hour, six to seven days a week of walking over hilly (variable) terrain or walk-jogging over relatively flat ground. An alternative would be to walk 50 to 60 minutes three days a week and take an aerobics class three days a week and perhaps two to three sets of singles tennis on the seventh day. It is important to know that lower volumes of weekly exercise can still produce many other benefits, such as improved fitness and overall health, reduced blood pressure and increased psychological well-being. An ACE-certified Clinical Exercise Specialist can help you make the connection safely and effectively. A heart attack is a life-threatening event. Everyone should know the warning signs of a heart attack and how to get emergency help. Many people suffer permanent damage to their hearts or die because they do not get help immediately. Each year, more than a million persons in the United States have a heart attack, and about half (515,000) of them die. About one-half of those who die do so within 1 hour of the start of symptoms and before reaching the hospital. Both men and women have heart attacks. Emergency personnel can often stop arrhythmias with emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation (electrical shock), and prompt advanced cardiac life support procedures. If care is sought soon enough, blood flow in the blocked artery can be restored in time to prevent permanent damage to the heart. Most people, however, do not seek medical care for 2 hours or more after symptoms begin. Many people wait 12 hours or longer. Symptoms and Diagnosis The warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack can include: Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes or goes away and comes back. The discomfort can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain. Heart attack pain can sometimes feel like indigestion or heartburn. Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Pain, discomfort, or numbness can occur in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach. Shortness of breath. Difficulty in breathing often comes along with chest discomfort, but it may occur before chest discomfort. Other symptoms. Examples include breaking out in a cold sweat, having nausea and vomiting, or feeling light-headed or dizzy. Signs and symptoms vary from person to person. In fact, if you have a second heart attack, your symptoms may not be the same as for the first heart attack. Some people have no symptoms. This is called a "silent" heart attack. The symptoms of angina (chest pain) can be similar to the symptoms of a heart attack. If you have angina and notice a change or a worsening of your symptoms, talk with your doctor right away. Diagnosis of a heart attack may include the following tests: EKG (electrocardiogram). This test is used to measure the rate and regularity of your heartbeat. A 12-lead EKG is used in diagnosing a heart attack. Blood tests. When cells in the heart die, they release enzymes into the blood. These enzymes are called markers or biomarkers. Measuring the amount of these markers in the blood can show how much damage was done to your heart. These tests are often repeated at intervals to check for changes. The specific blood tests are: Troponin test. This test checks the troponin levels in the blood. This blood test is considered the most accurate to see if a heart attack has occurred and how much damage it did to the heart. CK or CK-MB test. These tests check for the amount of the different forms of creatine kinase in the blood. Myoglobin test. This test checks for the presence of myoglobin in the blood. Myoglobin is released when the heart or other muscle is injured. Nuclear heart scan. This test uses radioactive tracers (technetium or thallium) to outline heart chambers and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. A nuclear heart scan shows any damage to your heart muscle. Cardiac catheterization. A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is passed through an artery in the groin (upper thigh) or arm to reach the coronary arteries. Your doctor can use the catheter to determine pressure and blood flow in the heart's chambers, collect blood samples from the heart, and examine the arteries of the heart by x ray. Coronary angiography. This test is usually performed along with cardiac catheterization. A dye that can be seen by using x ray is injected through the catheter into the coronary arteries. Your doctor can see the flow of blood through the heart and see where there are blockages. Causes Most heart attacks are caused by a blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that bring blood and oxygen to the heart muscle). When blood cannot reach part of your heart, that area starves for oxygen. If the blockage continues long enough, cells in the affected area die. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common underlying cause of a heart attack. CAD is the hardening and narrowing of the coronary arteries by the buildup of plaque in the inside walls (atherosclerosis). Over time, plaque buildup in the coronary arteries can: Narrow the arteries so that less blood flows to the heart muscle Block completely the arteries and the flow of blood Cause blood clots to form and block the arteries A less common cause of heart attacks is a severe spasm (tightening) of the coronary artery that cuts off blood flow to the heart. These spasms can occur in persons with or without CAD. Artery spasm can sometimes be caused by: Taking certain drugs, such as cocaine Emotional stress Exposure to cold Cigarette smoking

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