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SIFAT FISIK DAN MEKANIKA LAMINA
YANG DIBUAT DARI BAMBU


Oleh

Elyazar Manuhuwa and Mery Loiwatu
Faculty of Agriculture, Pattimura University, Ambon
elli_manuhuwa@yahoo.co.id

ABSTRAK

Bambu adalah salah satu hasil hutan bukan kayu yang dikenal sebagai tanaman yang memiliki banyak manfaat. Bambu memiliki batang lurus, ringan, keras dan mudah dibelah. Sehubungan batangnya yang beruas dan berbuku, maka diperlukan teknologi dan rekajasa khusus untuk mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan bambu sehingga dimasa depan dapat menggantikan kayu. Lamina yang dibuat daripada bambu telah dimanfaatkan menjadi bahan bangunan rumah karena dinilai sebagai materi yang berasal dari tanaman yang ramah lingkungan.


bamboo

Kualitas lamina diukur berdasarkan sifat fisik, mekanika dan delaminasi. Viskositas perekat, kebasahan bambu dan kepaduan ikatan perekat menentukan kualitas lamina dan tipe perekat. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengukur kadar air, berat jenis, modulus elastisitas (MOE), modulus patah (MOR), keteguhan tekan, keteguhan geser, serta persen kerusakan bambu. Penelitian menggunakan percobaan faktorial acak lengkap, dan 3 (tiga) kali ulangan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh nyata perlakuan awal terhadap berat jenis lamina yang dibuat dari bambu Jawa (Schizostachyum brachycladumi), bambu kuning (Bambusa vulgaris) dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper). Perlakuan awal berpengaruh nyata terhadap keteguhan tekan lamina yang dibuat dari bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper), dan bambu suanggi (Bambusa blumeana), dan modulus elastisitas lamina yang dibuat dari bambu suanggi (Bambusa blumeana). Kadar air lamina yang dibuat dari bambu adalah 0,83 – 0,87; modulus elatisitas (MOE) adalah 3028,84-66054,13 kg/cm2; modulus patah (MOR) adalah 775,93 – 999,57 kg/cm2; keteguhan tekan tegak lurus serat adalah  740,62 – 875,75 kg/cm2; keteguhan geser adalah 71,16 – 78,65 kg/cm2; dan persen kerusakan bambu adalah 52,31- 65,85%.

Kata kunci : lamina, berat jenis, keteguhan tekan, modulus elastisitas.

PHYSICS AND MECHANICALS PROPERTIES
OF LAMINATED BOARD MADE OF BAMBOO

ABSTRACT

Bamboo is one of non wood forest product  that have been known as multiple use plant. It has straight trunk, smooth bark, light, hard, and easy to split. Because its stem comprise of internode (hollow inside) and nodes, therefore special technology and engineering have been established to optimize bamboo that in the future it might be replace wood. Laminated board  made of bamboo have been used for house building because it is considered as environment friendly material.

Quality of laminated board was measured based on physical, mechanical properties and  delamination. Viscosity of  adhesives, wet ability of bamboo and solidity of glue join was determine the quality of the board beside type of adhesives. Objective of the study was to measure  moisture content, specific gravity, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), compression and shearing strength, and percentage of bamboo failure. Factorial experiment in simple random sampling was applied in the study with 3 replications       

Result of  the study  indicated  that there was significant effect of preliminary  treatment to the  specific gravity of laminated board of Jawa (Schizostachyum brachycladumi), Kuning (Bambusa vulgaris) and Petung (Dendrocalamus asper). Effect of preliminary treatment was significant to the compressive strength of laminated board  of  Petung (Dendrocalamus asper), and Suanggi (Bambusa blumeana), and modulus of elasticity of suanggi’s laminated board (Bambusa blumeana). Moisture content of  laminated board made of bamboo was 9.93% - 10.82%. Specific gravity of laminated board was 0.83 - 0.87; MOE was 30728.84-66054.13 kg/cm2;  MOR was 775.93 - 999.57 kg/cm2; compressive strength perpendicular to grain was 740.62 - 875.75 kg/cm2;  shearing strength was 71.16 - 78.65 kg/cm2;  and  percentage of bamboo failure was 52.31- 65.85%.

Keywords :  laminated board, SG, CS, MOE.

 


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